Rabies is a human infection that occurs after a transdermal bite or scratch by an infected animal, like dogs and cats. It can be transmitted when infectious material, usually saliva, comes into direct contact with a victim’s fresh skin lesions. Rabies may also occur, though in very rare cases, through inhalation of virus-containing spray or through organ transplants.
Rabies is considered to be a neglected disease, which is 100% fatal though 100% preventable. It is not among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the country but it is regarded as a significant public health problem because (1) it is one of the most acutely fatal infection and (2) it is responsible for the death of 200-300 Filipinos annually.
To declare Philippines Rabies-Free by year 2022
To eliminate human rabies by the year 2020
To eliminate rabies as a public health problem with absences of indigenous cases for human and animal
- Post Exposure Prophylaxis
- Pre- Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
- Health Education and advocacy campaign
- Training/Capability Building
- Training on National Rabies Information System (NaRIS)
- Establishment of ABTCs by Inter-Local Health Zone
- DOH-DA joint evaluation and declaration of Rabies-free areas/provinces
The following organizations/agencies take part in attaining the goal of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program:
- Department of Agriculture (DA)
- Department of Education (DepEd)
- Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)
- Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)
- World Health Organization (WHO)
- Animal Welfare Coalition (AWC)
POLICIES AND LAWS
- Anti-Rabies Act of 2007 (Republic Act 9482) : An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies, Prescribing penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Thereof.
- Batas Pambansa Bilang 97: An Act Providing for the Compulsory Immunization of Livestock, Poultry and other Animals against Dangerous Communicable Diseases. The Act required the Secretary of Agriculture to make compulsory the vaccination of susceptible animals and poultry should there be a threat or existence of a highly communicable animal or avian disease in a certain locality.
- Executive Order No. 84: Declaring March as the Rabies Awareness Month, Rationalizing the Control Measures for the Prevention and Eradication of Rabies and Appropriating Funds.
- Memorandum of Agreement on Interagency Implementation of the NRPCP: Signed in May 1991 by the Secretaries of Agriculture (DA), Health (DOH), Local Government (DILG) and Education, Culture and Sports, now, Department of Education
- Joint DA, DOH, DepEd, DILG Administrative Order No. 01 Series of 2008: Implementing Rules and Regulations Implementing Republic Act 9482 An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies, Prescribing Penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Therefor
- Administrative Order No. 2014-0012 entitled New Guidelines on the Management of Rabies Exposures: To provide new policy guidelines and procedure to ensure an effective and efficient management for eventual reduction if not elimination of human rabies.
- Administrative Order No. 2018-0013 entitled Revised Guidelines on the Management of Rabies Exposures: Ensure availability of anti-rabies vaccines to allow the use of Non-WHO Prequalified Rabies Vaccine but registered and approved by FDA only when there is shortage of vaccines.
- Joint Department Administrative Order No. 01 entitled Guidelines for Declaring Areas as Rabies-Free Zones: To provide the guidelines for declaring zones/areas as Rabies-Free by which the DA, DOH and other concerned institutions and agencies that will administer programs and activities on the control, prevention and elimination of Rabies
STRATEGIES, ACTION POINTS, AND TIMELINE
- Provision of Post Exposure Prophylaxis to all rabies exposures/ animal bite victims (provided by RA 9482).
- ABTC/ABC certification as quality PEP providers-PhilHealth Package
- Provision of Pre- Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to high risk individuals and school children in high incidence area- Provided by RA 1984.
- Strengthened IEC campaign on:
- Responsible Pet Ownership (RPO)
- RA 9482 known as the “The Anti Rabies Act of 2007” and enactment of and strict implementation of local rabies control ordinances.
- Early and proper management of animal bites.
- In coordination with DA-BAI: promotion of dog vaccination, dog population control and control of stray animals.
- Advocacy Campaign:
Rabies awareness and advocacy campaign is a year round activity highlighted on 2 occasions: March – the Rabies awareness month and September 28 – World Rabies Day. The campaign focuses on three target audiences; pet owners – to have their dog/s registered and vaccinated; animal bite victims- to practice immediate washing of bites with soap and water for at least 10 minutes and receive appropriate Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)if need from trained health workers and not from traditional healers; and lastly Legislators, Local Chief Executives (LCEs), NGO’s Pos and other stakeholders to implement (LCEs) and support a comprehensive rabies prevention and control program.
- Training of Medical Doctors and Registered Nurses of ABTCs on the guidelines on the management of animal bite victims- A requirement for ABTC certification as providers of quality PEP services and PHIC accreditation:
- Training course offered only to government and privately owned bite centers.
- MHOS. CHOs, PHNs and residents physicians not functioning as ABTC are not invited to attend the training
- Disease free zone – Joint DOH-DA evaluation and declaration of Rabies-free islands (as provided for in the DOH disease free zone initiative and the Joint DOH-DA AO).
- Integration of rabies program in elementary curriculum- almost 50% of animal bite victims are <15 years old
- Post-mortem review – death review will be performed jointly by both human health workers from the provinces/cities and hospitals with cases of human rabies by. This aims to review the diagnostic history, clinical aspect, and outcome of the patient, status of biting animal and location of biting incidence of human death cases due to rabies to be able to call for an action on how to have a zero incidence of rabies.
- Support to Department of Agriculture on Dog Vaccination
Number of Rabies-free areas/
Incidence of human-rabies cases
% of Post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies
(2 dose) 216,569
(2 dose) 328,733
(2 dose) 410,811
(4 dose) 522,420
(4 dose TCV) 683,302
(6 dose TCV) 544,992
(8 full dose TCV) 128,110
94%(8 full dose TCV) 1,130,873
Erig: 52% (142,816)
CALENDAR OF ACTIVITIES
- March as the Rabies Awareness Month
- September 28 as the World Rabies Day
PROGRAM MANAGER CONTACT INFORMATION
RAFFY A. DERAY, MD, MPH
OIC DVISION CHIEF, INFECTIOUS DISEASES FOR ELIMINATION DIVISION/
NATIONAL RABIES PROGRAM MANAGER
Contact Number: 751-78-00 or 651-78-00 local 2354
updated February 14, 2020