What is the early working or Bolar provision and how does it help bring down prices of medicines?

This allows development, testing, and experimental work for the registration of a generic medicine to take place during the patent period of the innovator product.  Such development, testing, and experimental work may last from 6 months to 2 years. Thus, this allows generic counterparts to be readily available and marketed the day after the patent expires instead of 2 years after.  In contrast, without Bolar provision, a company may only apply for registration after the patent expires, in which case, the effective life of the patent is extended subject to the time it takes to complete said registration processes (usually 6 months to two years).  By exerting the early workings provision for patented medicines, generic competition is facilitated and cheaper yet quality counterparts for expensive innovators become available earlier in the market.