Foot and Mouth Disease

Foot and Mouth Disease

Cause

A virus of the family Picornaviridee, genus Aphthovirus.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

• One of the most contagious animal diseases, with important economic losses

• Low mortality rate in adult animals, but often high mortality in young due to myocarditis.

Hosts:

• Bovidae (catel, zebus, domestic buffaloes, yaks), sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants and suidae. Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas) have low susceptibility.
• Direct or indirect contact (droplets)
• Animal vectors (human, etc.)
• Inanimate vectors (vehicles)
• Airborne, especially temperate zones (up to 60 km overland and 300 km by sea)

DIAGNOSIS

Incubation period is 2-14 days

Prevention and Control

• Protection of free zones by border animal movement control and surveillance
• Slaughter of infected, recovered, and FMD-susceptible contact animals
• Disinfection of premises and all infected material (implements, cards, clothes, etc.)
• Destruction of cadavers, litter, and susceptible animal products in the infected area
• Quarantine measures