Foot and Mouth Disease
A virus of the family Picornaviridee, genus Aphthovirus.
• One of the most contagious animal diseases, with important economic losses
• Low mortality rate in adult animals, but often high mortality in young due to myocarditis.
• Bovidae (catel, zebus, domestic buffaloes, yaks), sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants and suidae. Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas) have low susceptibility.
• Direct or indirect contact (droplets)
• Animal vectors (human, etc.)
• Inanimate vectors (vehicles)
• Airborne, especially temperate zones (up to 60 km overland and 300 km by sea)
Incubation period is 2-14 days
Prevention and Control
• Protection of free zones by border animal movement control and surveillance
• Slaughter of infected, recovered, and FMD-susceptible contact animals
• Disinfection of premises and all infected material (implements, cards, clothes, etc.)
• Destruction of cadavers, litter, and susceptible animal products in the infected area
• Quarantine measures